Tag Archives: scientists

Indonesia tsunami worsened by shape of Palu bay: scientists

Indonesia tsunami worsened by shape of Palu bay: scientistsThe tsunami that ravaged the Indonesian city of Palu was outsized compared to the earthquake that spawned it, but other factors — including a long, narrow bay — conspired to create monster waves, scientists say. The 7.5-magnitude quake, which struck early evening on Friday — a time when many in the Muslim-majority country would have been at the mosque — brought buildings down all over Palu and its surrounding area. “The waves were at least two-to-three metres high, and possibly twice that,” said Jane Cunneen, a research fellow at Curtin University’s Faculty of Science and Engineering in Bentley, Western Australia, and an architect of the Indian Ocean’s tsunami warning system, developed under UN guidance.



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Scientists behind game-changing cancer immunotherapies win Nobel medicine prize

Scientists behind game-changing cancer immunotherapies win Nobel medicine prizeThe scientists’ work in the 1990s has since swiftly led to new and dramatically improved therapies for cancers such as melanoma and lung cancer, which had previously been extremely difficult to treat. “The seminal discoveries by the two Laureates constitute a landmark in our fight against cancer,” the Nobel Assembly at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute said as it awarded the prize of nine million Swedish crowns ($ 1 million). Allison and Honjo showed releasing the brakes on the immune system can unleash its power to attack cancer.



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A Chinese Man Is Facing Charges for Spying and Recruiting American Scientists

A Chinese Man Is Facing Charges for Spying and Recruiting American ScientistsJi Chaoqun, 27, is charged with knowingly acting as an agent of a foreign government



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Scientists Discover Giant Deep-Sea Coral Reef Off Atlantic Coast

Scientists Discover Giant Deep-Sea Coral Reef Off Atlantic CoastTHE ATLANTIC OCEAN — As the research vessel Atlantis made its way out to sea



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Scientists downgrade alert level for Hawaii volcano

Scientists downgrade alert level for Hawaii volcanoHONOLULU (AP) — Slowing activity at Hawaii's Kilauea volcano has prompted scientists on Friday to downgrade their alert level for the mountain.



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Scientists seek new ways to combat Florida's growing 'red tide'

Scientists seek new ways to combat Florida's growing 'red tide'Michael Crosby, president and chief executive of the Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, welcomed a red tide emergency order issued this week by Governor Rick Scott, designating more state money for research, cleanup and wildlife rescues. Interest in mitigation technologies has been heightened by a 10-month-long toxic algae bloom off Florida’s southwestern coast that has caused mounds of rotting fish to wash up on beaches from Tampa to Naples. The red tide also has been implicated in at least 266 sea turtle strandings and is suspected or determined to have caused 68 manatee deaths so far this year, according to Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission figures.



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Rising sea levels threatens coastal cities with more tsunamis, scientists warn

Rising sea levels threatens coastal cities with more tsunamis, scientists warnTsunamis will become more common and more ferocious with global warming, scientists have warned after a study found that global sea level rises will increase the risk of coastal cities being wiped out. Smaller earthquakes that currently pose no serious tsunami threat could unleash waves capable of inundating coastal cities, researchers found in a study focusing on the city of Macau in China. Currently it is considered safe from tsunamis, despite lying within a major earthquake zone. At today's sea level, it would take a very powerful earthquake tipping past magnitude 8.8 to cause widespread tsunami flooding in Macau. But a half-metre rise in sea level – predicted to occur in the region by 2060 – could more than double the chances of a huge tsunami swamping the territory, according to the research. A three-foot sea level rise, expected by 2100, would increase the risk up to 4.7 times. The source of the earthquake danger is the Manila Trench, a massive crack in the floor of the South China Sea formed by the collision of two tectonic plates. It has generated numerous earthquakes, though none larger than magnitude 7.8 since the 1560s. A modest rise in sea levels would greatly amplify the tsunami threat from smaller earthquakes, the computer simulation study showed. Cities most prone to natural disaster Lead researcher Dr Robert Weiss, from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) in the US, said: "Our research shows that sea-level rise can significantly increase the tsunami hazard, which means that smaller tsunamis in the future can have the same adverse impacts as big tsunamis would today. "The South China Sea is an excellent starting point for such a study because it is an ocean with rapid sea-level rise and also the location of many mega cities with significant worldwide consequences if impacted." The team's findings are reported in the journal Science Advances.



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Nasa probe will still be circling Sun at end of Solar System say scientists

Nasa probe will still be circling Sun at end of Solar System say scientistsNasa's new solar spacecraft is so indestructable that parts of it will be circling the Sun until the Solar System ends, eight billion years from now, scientists have said.  The US space agency launches its Parker Solar Probe on Saturday, which will travel closer to the Sun than any mission before, to unlock the secrets of fierce radioactive storms which threaten Earth.  Earth, and all the other objects in the Solar System are constantly plowing through what is known as the solar wind – a constant stream of high-energy particles, mostly protons and electrons, hurled into space by The Sun. These radioactive storms are so powerful they are able to knock out satellites, disrupt services such as communications and GPS, threaten aircraft and in even interfere with electricity supplies. The mission Sun’s outer atmosphere, or corona, the closest any man-made instrument has ever got to a star.  For seven years it will orbit at around 3.38 million miles from the star's surface, where temperatures reach 1,400C. The probe is relying on a 4.5 inch carbon heat shield which has taken 10 years to develop and which is so strong it will survive for billions of years even when the rest of the spacecraft has disintegrated. Speaking at a briefing ahead of the launch, Andy Driesman, Parker Solar Probe Programme Manager from Johns Hopkins University said: "At four million miles the Sun is very hot, so we need to bring an umbrella with us. "It’s a carbon heat shield. It took 18 months to fabricate it and a decade to develop it.  "Eventually the spacecraft will run out of propellant and will leave altitude control and parts of it will transition into the Sun. But hopefully in 10 to 20 years there is going to be this carbon disc and that will be around to the end of the Solar System." The Parker Solar Probe  Credit: Ed Whitman Johns Hopkins APL/NASA The spacecraft also holds a memory card containing the names of more than 1.1 million members of the public who were asked to write in to support the mission. London-born professor Nicky Fox, project scientist from Johns Hopkins University, said: "I think the spacecraft will break up into parts and form dust, and then those names will orbit the Sun forever." The nearest a spacecraft has previously come to the Sun was the Helios 2 mission in 1976, which flew to within 27 million miles. Once inside the corona, sensory equipment will attempt to ‘taste’ and ‘smell’ electronic particles while they are still moving slowly enough to be measured. Professor Mathew Owens, space scientist at the University of Reading, said: “It's an incredibly hostile environment in which to do science, so the spacecraft has faced enormous engineering challenges. But everything is looking positive for Saturday. “The thing we really don't understand about the Sun, and therefore stars in general, is why its atmosphere gets hotter further away from the heat source. “We've been trying to solve this mystery for more than 50 years, by taking measurements from a nice, safe distance, and it's left us in an unusual position. We've got a bunch of theories that seem to work, but don't know which ones actually explain the Sun.” Currently, solar activity is monitored by a network of satellites, but scientists still have a poo understanding of how radiation builds up in the star’s outer atmosphere and then accelerates towards Earth. A better understanding of “space weather” is also considered crucial for protecting astronauts and their equipment for any future endeavours to colonise the Moon or Mars. The Parker Solar Probe will go closer to a star than any mission has ever gone  Credit: Nasa The Parker Solar Probe, which weights 1,400lbs, will travel faster than any craft ever before at 430,000 mph, and during its a seven-year mission will make 24 orbits of the Sun. The spacecraft will carry instruments to measure bulk plasma, described as the 'bread and butter' of solar waves, as well as a full package of magnetic measuring equipment. Eugene Parker, who the mission is named after  Credit: AFP It will also carry a white light imager, dubbed 'Whisper' which can photograph solar waves. “Where does the solar wind come from? What causes flares and coronal mass ejections? We still don’t understand these processes,” said Justin Kasper, professor of climate and space sciences and engineering at the University of Michigan, mission principal investigator on the Parker Solar Probe. “The Parker Solar Probe will help us do a much better job of predicting when a disturbance in the solar wind could hit Earth.” The mission was named after Eugene Parker, the solar astrophysicist who first discovered the solar wind, and has been in the works for more than half a century. The memory card on board also contains a copy of his first scientific paper outlining his work. It was conceived before a space program, or even Nasa, existed.



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Bermuda Triangle Mystery Solved? Scientists Think They've Figured It Out

Bermuda Triangle Mystery Solved? Scientists Think They've Figured It OutScientists believe they've solved the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle ― and



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Antarctic Ice Sheet Is Melting Way Faster Than Expected, Scientists Warn

Antarctic Ice Sheet Is Melting Way Faster Than Expected, Scientists WarnThe Antarctic ice sheet is melting at a faster rate than at any previously



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